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Doctors who treat KIDNEY STONES / CALCULI or similar ailments belong to following departments:
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Nephrology   Urology  


Also known as Kidney stone


Kidney removes waste product from the blood in the form of urine. Kidney stones or calculi get formed when chemicals in the urine become concentrated to the point that they form solid crystals. Smaller stones pass out on their own however larger stones might become lodged in the urinary tract i.e ureter, bladder and urethra or the kidney causing severe pain, blockage or infection.

Kidney Stone


There are various kinds of kidney stones, caused due to accumulation of calcium, ammonia(struvite stone), uric acid or cystine(cystinuria). Some of the common risk factors associated with these are as follows:

- Drinking less water
- Genetic factors esp cystinuria (runs in the families)
- Urinary tract infections esp struvite stone
- Gout or chemotherapy esp in the case of uric acid stones
- Some kinds of medications


Mostly associated with a severe cramping pain in the lower back or side. The pain usually moves down towards the abdomen, groin or genitals as the stone moves down the urinary tract. Some of the other symptoms may include:

  • • Nausea and vomiting
  • • Chills
  • • Cloudy or bloody urine
  • • Fever
  • • Increased urinary frequency


- Physical examination
- Abdominal CT scan/ultrasound
- Blood tests to check calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolyte levels
- Kidney function tests


- Smaller stones might pass off on their own and doctors might ask you to drink more fluids alongwith some medicines coupled with some painkillers.

- Extracorporeal shock-wave treatment i.e Lithotripsy: For slightly larger stones but smaller than a half an inch that are located near the kidney or ureter.

- Ureteroscopy may be used for stones in the lower urinary tract.

- An open surgery (nephrolithotomy) may be needed in some cases.

You may also like to learn about:

Urinary tract infection
Stricture urethra
Calculus Pancreatic
Calculus Biliary
Abdominal pain

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